Clay by James Joyce

clay james joyce

In Clay by James Joyce we have the theme of poverty, conflict, disconnection, escape and paralysis. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and after reading the story the reader realises that Joyce, by giving the reader a description of Maria’s daily tasks, may be exploring the theme of paralysis. Maria has a job to […]

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Counterparts by James Joyce

counterparts james joyce

In Counterparts by James Joyce we have the theme of resentment, failure, powerlessness and paralysis. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and some readers will recognise that Joyce, through the use of the title of the story, is suggesting to the reader the idea of repetition. The term counterparts […]

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A Little Cloud by James Joyce

a little cloud james joyce

In A Little Cloud by James Joyce we have the theme of discontent, frustration, responsibility, resentment, escape and paralysis. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and very early on in the story the reader gets an idea of exactly how discontent the main character Little Chandler really is. Joyce tells […]

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The Boarding House by James Joyce

the boarding house james joyce

In The Boarding House by James Joyce we have the theme of powerlessness, social opinion, paralysis and marriage. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and what is interesting about the story is that the reader is given the point of view of two of the main characters in the […]

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Two Gallants by James Joyce

two gallants james joyce

In Two Gallants by James Joyce we have the theme of betrayal, treachery and paralysis. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and one of the first things the reader will notice after they have read the story is that Joyce is using irony when it comes to the title […]

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After the Race by James Joyce

after the race james joyce

In After the Race by James Joyce we have the theme of money, status, class, politics and paralysis. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unknown narrator and very early on in the story Joyce appears to be exploring the theme of paralysis. As the cars are at ‘the crest of the hill […]

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Eveline by James Joyce

eveline james joyce

In Eveline by James Joyce we have the theme of memory, responsibility, decisions, conflict, escape, guilt, paralysis and letting go (or rather the inability to let go). Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unknown narrator and from the opening lines of the story it is apparent that Joyce is delving into […]

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Araby by James Joyce

araby james joyce

In Araby by James Joyce we have the theme of innocence, adventure, escape, desire, frustration and disappointment. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is a memory piece and is narrated in the first person by an unnamed narrator who is looking back at an incident that happened when he was younger. It is also very early in the story […]

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An Encounter by James Joyce

an encounter james joyce

In An Encounter by James Joyce we have the theme of escape, failure, paralysis, disaffection, poverty, disappointment, loyalty, education and coming of age. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the first person by an unnamed male who is looking back on an incident from his childhood and after reading the story the reader realises that Joyce […]

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The Sisters by James Joyce

the sisters james joyce

In The Sisters by James Joyce we have the theme of paralysis and freedom. Taken from his Dubliners collection the story is narrated in the first person by an young unnamed boy and after first reading the story the reader realises that Joyce may be exploring the theme of paralysis. There is the obvious fact that Father Flynn has suffered a third stroke, […]

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The Lottery by Shirley Jackson

the lottery shirley jackson

In The Lottery by Shirley Jackson we have the theme of acceptance, family and tradition. Set in a mall village in New England the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator and very early on in the story (the second paragraph) the reader realises that Jackson is using foreshadowing. The stones that the young boys are collecting and […]

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The Enormous Radio by John Cheever

the enormous radio john cheever

In The Enormous Radio by John Cheever we have the theme of privacy, secrecy, obsession, doubt, change and control. Set in an apartment building in 1940s New York the story is narrated in the third person by an unnamed, omniscient narrator and has a suspenseful mood. Cheever succeeding in drawing the reader further into the story, right to the end, […]

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Elephant by Raymond Carver

elephant raymond carver

In Elephant by Raymond Carver we have the theme of acceptance, struggle, security, letting go and dependency. Taken from his Elephant and Other Stories collection the story is narrated in the first person by an unnamed narrator and from the beginning of the story it would appear that Carver is exploring the theme of dependency. The narrator’s brother (Billy) is […]

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Intimacy by Raymond Carver

intimacy raymond carver

In the short story Intimacy by Raymond Carver we have the theme of memory, struggle, letting go and closure. Taken from his Elephant and Other Stories collection the story is narrated in the first person by an unnamed narrator and though the reader never learns the name of the narrator, very early on in the story we discover that he […]

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Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway

hills like white elephants ernest hemingway

In Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway we have the theme of reliance, communication, discontent, change and conflict. Taken from his The Complete Short Stories collection the story is narrated in the third person by an unknown narrator and is set at a train station in Spain. The setting of the story is important because it acts as symbolism for where both protagonists are […]

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The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber by Ernest Hemingway

the short happy life of francis macomber ernest hemingway

In The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber by Ernest Hemingway we have the theme of fear, cowardice, emancipation and coming of age. Taken from his The Complete Short Stories collection the story is narrated in the third person and is divided into three sections. In the first section the reader is introduced to the three main characters, Francis Macomber, his wife Margot and […]

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The Snows of Kilimanjaro by Ernest Hemingway

the snows of kilimanjaro ernest hemingway

In The Snows of Kilimanjaro by Ernest Hemingway we have the theme of regret, conflict, redemption, acceptance and death. Taken from his collection of the same name the story is narrated in the third person and is divided into six present time sections with five flashbacks (or interior monologues). The use of flashbacks is important because it is through them that the reader […]

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Judgement Day by Flannery O’Connor

judgement day flannery oconnor

In Judgement Day by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of connection, paralysis, salvation and pride. Taken from her Everything That Rises Must Converge collection the story is narrated in the third person and begins with the main protagonist, T.C. Tanner sitting in the living room of his daughter’s apartment in New York. He has had a stroke and through the use of flashbacks […]

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Parker’s Back by Flannery O’Connor

parkers back flannery oconnor

In Parker’s Back by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of connection, dissatisfaction, change and grace. Taken from her Everything That Rises Must Converge collection the story is narrated in the third person and begins with the reader being introduced to the main protagonist, a man called O.E Parker and his wife Sarah Ruth. Parker lives with Sarah in a rented shack and very […]

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Revelation by Flannery O’Connor

revelation flannery oconnor

In Revelation by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of judgement, grace and racism. Taken from her Everything That Rises Must Converge collection the story is narrated in the third person and begins with the main protagonist, Mrs Turpin looking for a seat in a doctor’s waiting room. Her husband Claud has what Mrs Turpin believes is an ulcer on his leg and she […]

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The Lame Shall Enter First by Flannery O’Connor

the lame shall enter first flannery oconnor

In The Lame Shall Enter First by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of selfishness, faith and connection. Taken from her Everything That Rises Must Converge collection the story is narrated in the third person and tells the tale of a man called Sheppard and his efforts to try and redeem a young juvenile delinquent called Rufus Johnson. There is a trace on […]

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The Comforts of Home by Flannery O’Connor

the comforts of home flannery oconnor

In The Comforts of Home by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of isolation, paralysis, charity, judgement, insecurity and arrogance. Taken from Everything That Rises Must Converge the story is narrated in the third person and begins with the main protagonist, Thomas looking out the window of his bedroom at his mother returning home with a young girl called Sarah Ham (or […]

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The Enduring Chill by Flannery O’Connor

the enduring chill flannery oconnor

In The Enduring Chill by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of grace, self-pity, connection, failure and change. Taken from her Everything That Rises Must Converge collection, the story is narrated in the third person and begins with the main protagonist Asbury Fox getting off a train in his home town of Timberboro. Asbury, believing that he is dying, has returned home to […]

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A View of the Woods by Flannery O’Connor

a view of the woods flannery oconnor

In A View of the Woods by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of control, identity, independence and conflict. Taken from Everything That Rises Must Converge the story is narrated in the third person and deals with the relationship between a grandfather (Mark Fortune) and his youngest grandchild (Mary Fortune Pitts). Fortune lives with his daughter, her husband (Pitts) and their seven […]

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Greenleaf by Flannery O’Connor

greenleaf flannery oconnor

In Greenleaf by Flannery O’Connor we have the theme of faith, grace and control. Taken from her Everything That Rises Must Converge collection the story is narrated in the third person and begins with the main protagonist Mrs May waking in the middle of the night and seeing a bull tearing at her hedge. O’Connor’s description of the bull ‘with a […]

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